Matters of the Environment

Urie Bronfenbrenner (April 29, 1917 – September 25, 2005) was a Russian American psychologist, known for developing his Ecological Systems Theory, and as a co-founder of the Head Start program in the United States for disadvantaged pre-school children.


Willpower is in your mind, not in a sugar cube, say Stanford scholars.

The research challenges the popular view that willpower is a limited resource that depends on a consistent supply of glucose.



Annie Murphy Paul: To Master A Subject, Don’t Just Learn…. OverLearn
“Why do I have to keep practicing? I know it already!” That’s the familiar wail of a child seated at the piano or in front of the multiplication table (or, for that matter, of an adult taking a tennis lesson). Cognitive science has a persuasive retort: We don’t just need to learn a task in order to perform it well; we need to overlearn it. Decades of research have shown that superior performance requires practicing beyond the point of mastery. The perfect execution of a piano sonata or a tennis serve doesn’t mark the end of practice; it signals that the crucial part of the session is just getting underway.